John Christy

John Raymond Christy is a climate scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) whose chief interests are satellite remote sensing of global climate and global climate change. He is best known, jointly with Roy Spencer, for the first successful development of a satellite temperature record.

A native of Fresno, California, Christy became interested in the weather when he was a child. He became curious why the weather in the San Joaquin Valley was so different from that of the Sierra Mountains. He has recalled that „I built my first climate datasets when I was 12, using a mechanical pencil, graph paper, and long-division (no calculators back then.) I’ve been a climate nerd ever since.“ He received a B.A. in Mathematics from California State University, Fresno in 1973, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from the University of Illinois in 1984 and 1987. His doctoral thesis was titled, An investigation of the general circulation associated with extreme anomalies in hemispheric mean atmospheric mass.

Prior to his scientific career, Christy taught physics and chemistry as a missionary teacher in Nyeri, Kenya from 1973 to 1975. After earning a Master of Divinity degree from Golden Gate Baptist Seminary in 1978 he served four years as a bivocational mission-pastor in Vermillion, South Dakota, where he also taught college math.

He is the Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science and Director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He was appointed Alabama’s state climatologist in 2000. For his development of a global temperature data set from satellites he was awarded NASA’s Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, and the American Meteorological Society’s „Special Award.“ In 2002, Christy was elected Fellow of the American Meteorological Society.

Since 1989 Christy, along with Roy Spencer, has maintained an atmospheric temperature record derived from satellite microwave sounding unit measurements, commonly called the „UAH“ record (see also satellite temperature record). This was once quite controversial: From the beginning of the satellite record in late 1978 into 1998 it showed a net global cooling trend, although ground measurements and instruments carried aloft by balloons showed warming in many areas. Part of the cooling trend seen by the satellites can be attributed to several years of cooler than normal temperatures and cooling caused by the eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano. Part of the discrepancy between the surface and atmospheric trends was resolved over a period of several years as Christy, Spencer and others identified several factors, including orbital drift and decay, that caused a net cooling bias in the data collected by the satellite instruments. Since the data correction of August 1998 (and the major La Niña Pacific Ocean warming event of the same year), data collected by satellite instruments has shown an average global warming trend in the atmosphere. From November 1978 through March 2011, Earth’s atmosphere has warmed at an average rate of about 0.14 C per decade, according to the UAHuntsville satellite record.

Christy was a lead author of a section of the 2001 report by the IPCC and the U.S. CCSP report Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere – Understanding and Reconciling Differences. Christy also signed the 2003 American Geophysical Union statement on climate change.

Christy has also performed detailed reconstruction of surface temperature for Central California. He found that recorded temperature changes there were consistent with an altered surface environment caused by increased irrigation for agriculture, which changed „a high-albedo desert into a darker, moister, vegetated plain.“

In a 2003 interview with National Public Radio about the 2003 American Geophysical Union (AGU) statement, he said he is „a strong critic of scientists who make catastrophic predictions of huge increases in global temperatures and tremendous rises in sea levels“. He added, though, that „it is scientifically inconceivable that after changing forests into cities, turning millions of acres into irrigated farmland, putting massive quantities of soot and dust into the air, and putting extra greenhouse gases into the air, that the natural course of climate has not changed in some way.“

In a 2009 interview with Fortune Magazine about signing the 2003 American Geophysical Union (AGU) statement, he said: „As far as the AGU, I thought that was a fine statement because it did not put forth a magnitude of the warming. We just said that human effects have a warming influence, and that’s certainly true. There was nothing about disaster or catastrophe. In fact, I was very upset about the latest AGU statement [in 2007]. It was about alarmist as you can get.“

In a 2007 editorial in the Wall Street Journal, he wrote: „I’m sure the majority (but not all) of my IPCC colleagues cringe when I say this, but I see neither the developing catastrophe nor the smoking gun proving that human activity is to blame for most of the warming we see.“

In a 2007 ruling in a trial relating to automobile emission regulation in Vermont, U.S. District Court Chief Judge William K. Sessions wrote, „Plaintiffs’ own expert, Dr. Christy, agrees with the IPCC’s [2001] assessment that in the light of new evidence and taking into account remaining uncertainties, most of the observed warming over the last fifty years is likely to have been due to the increase in GHG concentrations.“ What Christy said in his testimony was, „You know, it’s a statement that has lots of qualifications in it, so it’s hard to disagree with.“ and „You saw me pause a long time because — this was six years ago. And the question was about what I thought six years ago.“ When then asked if he presently agreed with that IPCC assessment Christy responded, „As I answered here, because of the qualifications in that statement, I don’t have significant concerns.“

In a 2009 written testimony to the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee, he wrote: „From my analysis, the actions being considered to ’stop global warming‘ will have an imperceptible impact on whatever the climate will do, while making energy more expensive, and thus have a negative impact on the economy as a whole. We have found that climate models and popular surface temperature data sets overstate the changes in the real atmosphere and that actual changes are not alarming.“

In 2014, Christy and his UAH colleague Richard McNider wrote an article in the Wall Street Journal in which they criticized climate models as making inaccurate predictions. He also dismissed the scientific consensus on global warming by arguing that there was a consensus about putrefaction causing scurvy, which was later acknowledged to be wrong.

Baduanjin qigong

The Baduanjin qigong(八段錦) is one of the most common forms of Chinese qigong used as exercise. Variously translated as Eight Pieces of Brocade, Eight-Section Brocade, Eight Silken Movements or Eight Silk Weaving, the name of the form generally refers to how the eight individual movements of the form characterize and impart a silken quality (like that of a piece of brocade) to the body and its energy. The Baduanjin is primarily designated as a form of medical qigong, meant to improve health. This is in contrast to religious or martial forms of qigong. However, this categorization does not preclude the form’s use by martial artists as a supplementary exercise, and this practice is frequent.

This exercise is mentioned in several encyclopedias originating from the Song Dynasty. The Pivot of the Way (Dao Shi, c. 1150) describes an archaic form of this qigong. The Ten Compilations on Cultivating Perfection (Xiuzhen shi-shu, c. 1300) features illustrations of all eight movements. The same work assigns the creation of this exercise to two of the Eight Immortals, namely Zhongli Quan and Lü Dongbin.

The exercise was later expanded from eight to twelve movements over the centuries and was described in the boxing manual Illustrated Exposition of Internal Techniques (1882) by Wang Zuyuan, a famed practitioner of the Sinew Changing Classic set.

Nineteenth century sources attribute the style to semi-legendary Chinese folk hero General Yue Fei, and describe it as being created as a form of exercise for his soldiers. The legend states he taught the exercise to his men to help keep their bodies strong and well-prepared for battle. Martial historian Prof. Meir Shahar notes Yue’s mention as a lineage master in the second preface of the Sinew Changing Classic manual (1624) is the reason why he was attributed as the creator of Baduanjin qigong.

The Baduanjin as a whole is broken down into eight separate exercises, each focusing on a different physical area and qi meridian. The Baduanjin traditionally contains both a standing and seated set of eight postures each. In the modern era, the standing version is by far the most widely practiced. The particular order in which the eight pieces are executed sometimes varies, with the following order being the most common.

Two Hands Hold up the Heavens

Drawing the Bow to Shoot the Hawk

Separate Heaven and Earth

Clench Fists and Glare Fiercely

Маэл Морда мак Мурхада

Маэл Морда Мак Мурхада (ирл. Máel Mórda mac Murchada; ок. 965 — 23 апреля 1014) — король Лейнстера (1003—1014).

Представитель септа Уа Фаэлайн, происходившего из клана Уи Дунлайнге. Сын Мурхада мак Финна (ум. 972), короля Лейнстера (966—972). Брат Гормлет инген Мурхада (ок. 960—1030).

В 1003 году после смещения короля Лейнстера Доннхада мак Домналла Клоэна (984—1003), представителя рода Уи Хеннселайг, Маэл Морда унаследовал королевский трон Лейнстера. Его владения находились вокруг современного города Нейс в среднем течении реки Лиффи (современное графство Килдэр).

В 1012 году Маэл Морда мак Мурхада поднял восстание против верховного короля Ирландии Бриана Бору (1002—1014). Тогда Бриан Бору женился на Гормлет инген Мурхаде, родной сестре Маэл Морды и вдове короля дублинских викингов Олава Кварана. В 1013 году Маэл Морда мак Мурхада, подстрекаемый своей сестрой Гормлет, заявил о своих претензиях на престол великих королей и вступил в направленный против Бриана Бору союз с её сыном и конунгом Дублина Ситриком Шёлковой Бородой.

23 апреля 1014 года противники встретились в кровавой битве при Клонтарфе. В этом сражении погибли и Бриан Бору, и Маэл Морда, но войско Мунстера одержал победу над объединенными силами Лейнстера и Дублина. После гибели Маэл Морды на королевский трон Лейнстера вступил Дунлайнг мак Туатал (ум. 1014), сын короля Лейнстера Туатала мак Аугайри (947—958). Затем правил Доникуан мак Дунлайнг (1014—1016), старший сын Дунлайнга.

У Маэл Морды был единственный сын Бран Мак Маэл Морда (? — 1052), король Лейнстера (1016—1018), в 1018 году схваченный и ослеплённый королём дублинских викингов Ситриком Шёлковой Бородой.

Mycoplasma capricolum

Mycoplasma capricolum is a species of Mycoplasma bacteria. It is primarily a pathogen of goats, but has also been found in sheep and cows.

Lartigue, Carole; Lebaudy, Anne; El Yacoubi, Basma; Rose, Simon; Grosjean, Henri; Blanchard, Alain; Douthwaite, Stephen (17 June 2014). „The flavoprotein Mcap0476 (RlmFO) catalyzes m5U1939 modification in Mycoplasma capricolum 23S rRNA“. Nucleic Acids Research (2014). 42 (12): 8073–8082. doi:. 

Rynings kors

Das Rynings kors ist ein Steinkreuz bei Hällnäs im Kirchspiel Persnäs (Gemeinde Borgholm) auf der schwedischen Insel Öland.

Das Rynings kors ist ein etwa drei Meter hohes, aus behauenem Kalkstein bestehendes Kreuz. Es ist verziert mit je zwei runden und rechteckigen Löchern sowie mit schlichten Ornamenten. Der verwendete Kalkstein stammt vermutlich von einem Steinbruch bei Hällnäs. Sein Aussehen zeugt von der Kunstfertigkeit des Bildhauers, dessen Name jedoch nicht überliefert ist. Es befindet sich entlang eines alten, heute nicht mehr benutzten Weges zwischen Persnäs und Hällnäs.

Der Stein von Hällnäs (schwedisch Hällnäs sten) erhielt seine Bezeichnung Rynings kors auf Grund regionaler Überlieferungen und Mythen. Demnach soll ein Olof Ryninge während eines Pferderennens an dieser Stelle gestürzt und dabei zu Tode gekommen sein. Ein Reim aus der Gegend zeugt noch heute davon: „Und die Pferde des Königs waren so stark – und schickten den Prinzen in Hällnäs Mark“. In einer anderen Überlieferung befand sich Ryning mit dem Pferd auf dem Weg nach Persnäs und wurde dabei abgeworfen, woraufhin er starb. In beiden Fällen kann man jedoch von einem tragischen Unglücksfall ausgehen. Man nimmt an, dass seine Verwandten den Stein zur Erinnerung an ihn errichten ließen. Das „Ryning Kreuz“ schien auch für König Johann III. zumindest kulturhistorisch bedeutsam zu sein, da er es in seiner Regierungszeit (1568 bis 1592) nach einem Einsturz wieder aufrichten ließ.

Olof Ryning stammte aus dem dänischen Geschlecht Ryning. Zu diesem gehörten auch die auf Öland ansässigen Brüder Gert Andersson Ryning und Peter Andersson Ryning. Beide waren Vögte der in der Auseinandersetzung zwischen Dänemark und Schweden strategisch wichtigen Burg Borgholm, dem späteren Schloss Borgholm. Sie dienten dem damaligen Regenten Erik von Pommern. Gert Andersson Ryning war bis 1412 Vogt und wurde dann Ordensbruder im Kloster Vadstena. Peter Andersson Ryning wird seit 1420 als Vogt von Borgholm erwähnt. Er war mit Sigrid Carlsdotter Sture verheiratet, einer Angehörigen des schwedischen Hochadels, welche 1430 mit einem ihrer Söhne in Vadstena begraben wurde. Auf Grund seiner dänischen Herkunft wurde er 1436 vom neuen König Karl VIII. abgesetzt.

Olof Ryning, dem dieses Kreuz vermutlich gewidmet ist, starb etwa um 1521. Er gehörte zu jenen sechs schwedischen Abgesandten, die gemeinsam mit dem späteren König Gustav I. Wasa nach der Schlacht bei Brännkyrka die Verhandlungen mit dem unterlegenen dänischen König Christian II. einleiten sollten. Vorausgegangen war dem ein Vorschlag Christian II. an Sten Sture, ihm als Sicherheit seine fünf wichtigsten Männer zu senden, worauf er zu den Friedensverhandlungen nach bei Stockholm erscheinen würde. Christian II. brach jedoch sein Wort und entführte alle sechs Abgesandten nach Dänemark, wo sie auf der Insel Kalø gefangen gehalten wurden. Es ist überliefert, dass Christian II. bemüht war, seine Geiseln zum Seitenwechsel zu überreden und ihm dies auch bei zwei schwedischen Abgesandten gelang. Bei einem von diesen soll es sich um Olof Ryning handeln.

Auf Öland finden sich noch weitere Steinkreuze, darunter das Martinuskreuz in Föra, in Tjusby bei Gärdslösa sowie die Kreuze von Övra Sandby und auf der Landzunge Kapelludden beide bei Bredsättra (in älteren Quellen Bredsätra genannt). Das 800 Jahre alte Kapelludenkreuz wurde im Januar 2007 von einem Sturm umgeworfen und zerstört, ist aber wieder hergestellt worden.


Basketball-Südamerikameisterschaft 2008

Die Basketball-Südamerikameisterschaft 2008, die dreiundvierzigste Basketball-Südamerikameisterschaft, fand zwischen dem ersten und sechsten Juli 2008 in Puerto Montt, Chile statt, das zum siebten Mal die Meisterschaft ausrichtete. Gewinner war die Nationalmannschaft Argentiniens, die zum zwölften Mal den Titel erringen konnte.

Argentinien Argentinien

Brasilien Brasilien

Chile Chile

Kolumbien Kolumbien

Uruguay Uruguay

Venezuela Venezuela

Argentinien Fernando Jorge Sampietro
Brasilien Cristiano Jesus Maranho
Chile Jose Carrasco
Chile Miguel Angel Bravo
Kolumbien Jose Luis Juyo
Dominikanische Republik Robinson Aracena
Puerto Rico Angel Martinez
Uruguay Hector Luis Uslenghi
Venezuela Roberto Oliveros

Arena Puerto Montt
Ort: Puerto Montt
Kapazität: 7.000

In der Vorrunde spielte jede Mannschaft gegen die jeweils anderen genau einmal (insgesamt fanden fünfzehnten Spiele statt). Pro Sieg gab es zwei Punkte, für eine Niederlage immerhin noch einen Punkt. Bei Punktgleichheit entschied das Korbverhältnis. Die Erst- und Zweitplatzierte Mannschaft zogen ins Finale ein, die Dritt- und Viertplatzierten spielten um Platz drei. Gleichzeitig qualifizierten sich diese Mannschaften für die Basketball-Amerikameisterschaft 2009.

Montevideo 1930 | Santiago de Chile 1932 | Buenos Aires 1934 | Rio de Janeiro 1935 | Santiago de Chile 1937 | Lima 1938 | Rio de Janeiro 1939 | Montevideo 1940 | Mendoza 1941 | Santiago de Chile 1942 | Lima 1943 | Guayaquil 1945 | Rio de Janeiro 1947 | Asunción 1949 | Montevideo 1953 | Cúcuta 1955 | Santiago de Chile 1958 | Cordoba 1960 | Rio de Janeiro 1961 | Lima 1963 | Cuyo 1966 | Asunción 1968 | Montevideo 1969 | Montevideo 1971 | Bogotá 1973 | Medellín 1976 | Valdivia 1977 | Bahía Blanca 1979 | Montevideo 1981 | São Paulo 1983 | Medellín 1985 | Asunción 1987 | Golfo de Guayaquil 1989 | Valencia 1991 | Guaratinguetá 1993 | Montevideo 1995 | Maracaibo 1997 | Bahía Blanca 1999 | Valdivia 2001 | Montevideo 2003 | Campos dos Goytacazes 2004 | Caracas 2006 | Puerto Montt 2008 | Neiva 2010 | Resistencia 2012 | La Asunción 2014

Santiago de Chile 1946 | Buenos Aires 1948 | Lima 1950 | Asunción 1952 | São Paulo 1954 | Quito 1956 | Lima 1958 | Santiago de Chile 1960 | Asunción 1962 | Rio de Janeiro 1965 | Cali 1967 | Santiago de Chile 1968 | Guayaquil 1970 | Lima 1972 | La Paz 1974 | Lima 1977 | La Paz 1978 | Lima 1981 | Cúcuta 1984 | Guaratinguetá 1986 | Santiago de Chile 1989 | Bogotá 1991 | Cochabamba 1993 | São Paulo 1995 | Iquique 1997 | Vitória 1999 | Lima 2001 | Loja 2003 | Bogotá 2005 | Asunción 2006 | Loja 2008 | Santiago de Chile 2010 Mendoza 2013 | Ambato 2014

Clay Shaw

Clay LaVerne Shaw (March 17, 1913 – August 15, 1974) was a businessman in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was the only person prosecuted in connection with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and was acquitted.

Shaw, a native of Kentwood, Louisiana, was the son of Glaris L., a United States Marshal, and Alice Shaw. His grandfather had been the sheriff of Tangipahoa Parish. When he was five, Shaw’s family moved to New Orleans, where he eventually attended Warren Easton High School.

Shaw was honorably discharged from the United States Army as a major in 1946. He served as secretary to the General Staff and was decorated by three nations: the United States with the Legion of Merit and Bronze Star, by France with the Croix de Guerre and named Chevalier de l’Ordre du Merite, and by Belgium named Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of Belgium.

After World War II Shaw helped start the International Trade Mart in New Orleans which facilitated the sales of both domestic and imported goods. He was known locally for his efforts to preserve buildings in New Orleans‘ historic French Quarter.

New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison prosecuted Clay Shaw on the charge that Shaw and a group of activists, including David Ferrie and Guy Banister, were involved in a conspiracy with elements of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the John F. Kennedy assassination. Garrison arrested Shaw on March 1, 1967. Garrison believed that Clay Shaw was the man named as „Clay Bertrand“ in the Warren Commission Report. Garrison said that Shaw used the alias „Clay Bertrand“ among New Orleans‘ gay society.

During the trial, which took place in January–February 1969, Garrison called insurance salesman Perry Russo[citation needed] as his main witness. Russo testified that he had attended a party at the apartment of anti-Castro activist David Ferrie. At the party, Russo said that Lee Harvey Oswald (who Russo said was introduced to him as „Leon Oswald“), David Ferrie, and „Clem Bertrand“ (who Russo identified in the courtroom as Clay Shaw) had discussed killing Kennedy. The conversation included plans for the „triangulation of crossfire“ and alibis for the participants.

Critics of Garrison argue that his own records indicate that Russo’s story had evolved over time. A key source was the „Sciambra Memo,“ which recorded Assistant D.A. Andrew Sciambra’s first interview with Russo. The memo does not mention an „assassination party,“ and it says that Russo met with Shaw on two occasions, neither of which occurred at the party.

On March 1, 1969 Shaw was acquitted less than one hour after the case went to the jury.

A heavy smoker most of his life, Clay Shaw died on August 15, 1974(1974-08-15) (aged 61) about 12:40 AM at his residence, 1022 St. Peter Street. The death certificate was signed by Dr. Hugh M. Batson, with the cause of death listed as metastatic lung cancer.

At the time of his death, Shaw was engaged in a $5 million suit against Garrison and members of an organization, Truth and Consequences Inc., that financed Garrison’s investigation. With no surviving relatives, the United States Supreme Court dismissed the suit in 1978.

Shaw was portrayed by Tommy Lee Jones in Oliver Stone’s 1991 film JFK. Jones received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the role.

Battle of Ostrovo

Krum’s campaigns

Simeon I’s campaigns

Sviatoslav’s invasion of Bulgaria

Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria

Uprising of Peter Delyan

Second Bulgarian Empire

The Battle of Ostrovo occurred in 1041 near Ostrovo, an area close to the lake of the same name in modern northern Greece. In 1040 Peter Delyan led an uprising against the Byzantines and was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria. He quickly occupied the western Balkan lands from Belgrade to Larissa but in the next year he was betrayed by his cousin Alusian, who deserted from the army and blinded him. Though blind, Peter Delyan remained in command and met the Byzantines near Ostrovo. The battle itself is unclear but the Bulgarians were defeated mainly with the help of the Varangian Guard, led by Harald Hardrada. The fate of the Bulgarian leader is also unknown; he may have perished in the battle. As a result, the uprising was crushed and Bulgaria remained under Byzantine rule until 1185.

Chris Welp

Christian Ansgar Welp (January 2, 1964 – March 1, 2015) was a German professional basketball player. Welp, a 213 centimetres (7 ft 0 in), 111 kilograms (245 lb) center, became the leading scorer in Washington Huskies history as a college basketball player. He scored 2,073 points for the Huskies and was a three-time all-Pac-10 selection. Welp was the Pac-10 player of the year in 1986 and helped lead the Huskies to consecutive conference regular-season titles. He also played three seasons in the NBA.

Welp was selected 16th overall in the National Basketball Association’s (NBA) 1987 Draft by the Philadelphia 76ers and he played three seasons in the NBA. He was traded by the 76ers, along with Maurice Cheeks and David Wingate to the San Antonio Spurs in exchange for Johnny Dawkins and Jay Vincent, during the off-season of 1989.

He was used sparingly by the Spurs before being traded to the Golden State Warriors in exchange for Uwe Blab (another German-born NBA center) at the trade deadline during the 1989-90 NBA season. After a handful of games with the Warriors, his NBA career ended.

From 1990 to 1996, Welp played in Germany for Bayer Leverkusen, with which he won six national championships and three cups. During that time, he also won the title at the Eurobasket 1993 as a player of the Germany national team, scoring the decisive last points in the final. He was voted MVP of that tournament.

For the 1996–97 season, Welp played with the Greek League club Olympiacos, winning the Euroleague title with them. In the 1997–98 season he played with the German league club ALBA Berlin. He also played with the Italian league club Viola Reggio Calabria during the 1998–99 season. Welp worked as an assistant coach for the national team of Germany until 2006.

Welp was inducted into the Husky Hall of Fame in 2001.

After Welp retired in 1999, he lived in Seattle, Washington, with his wife and three children. Welp died on March 1, 2015 of heart failure.

Ballygowan Cup And Ring Marks

De Ballygowan Cup And Ring Marks zijn rotskervingen uit de bronstijd, gelegen 1,6 kilometer ten zuidwesten van Kilmartin in Kilmartin Glen in de Schotse regio Argyll and Bute.

De Ballygowan Cup And Ring Marks dateren van 3000-2000 v. Chr. Een cup mark is een putje in de steen; een ring mark is een uitgehakte cirkel. De cup and ring marks zijn aangebracht op een enkel rotsvlak van 2,5 bij 2 meter met een stenen hamer. De markeringen vormen een simpel patroon: de cups zijn omringd met een enkele of meerdere ringen; rechte gootjes verbinden de verschillende cups en rings.

Op het rotsvlak zijn 11 cups met ringen en 43 simpele cups aangebracht. Eén cup is voorzien van drie hoefijzervormige ringen. In tegenstelling tot andere rotsvlakken met cup and ring marks zoals die van Cairnbaan overlappen de cups and ring marks op dit rotsvlak elkaar niet.

De Ballygowan Cup and Ring Marks worden beheerd door Historic Scotland. Andere rotskervingen in de buurt zijn onder andere de Kilmichael Glassary Cup And Ring Marks en de Achnabreck Cup And Ring Marks.